An Adjective is a word used to qualify a Noun or Pronoun e.g.,
- John is a good boy.
- Mac is a beautiful girl.
- I bought five apples.
- I want some milk.
The words good, beautiful, five, some, describing boy, girl, apples and milk are Adjectives.
An adjective can be used in two different ways:
- Attributive use : The lazy boy failed.
- Predicative use: The boy was lazy.
When the adjective is used before the noun as an epithet or attribute, we call it Attributive Adjective. When the adjective is used after the verb and forms part of the predicate, it is called Predicative Adjective.
Kinds of Adjectives
- Proper Adjective are formed from Proper Nouns. They describe a thing by referring to the Proper Noun. They describe a things by referring to the Proper Noun ; as
A Shakespearean play; An Indian farmer
The Roman empire; The English language
- Descriptive Adjectives show the quality or condition of persons and things. e.g., A brave soldier, an old lion, a big tree, a golden chain.
Note: These are also known as Qualitative Adjective because they refer to quality.
- Quantitative Adjective tell us about the quantity or degree of a thing. They show how much of a thing is meant; as Much, little, no, none, some, any, all, whole, enough, sufficient, etc. e.g., I have some money, He does not have any money., The money is her pocket is not enough.
Note (i) Adjective of quantity are always followed by Singular Nouns.
(ii) No is used when noun is given ; none when noun is understood.
- Numeral Adjective or Adjectives of Number show how many persons or things are meant and in what order they stand e.g.,
- All men are mortal.
- I want some more books.
- There are sixty students in this class.
- Yadav was the last batsman.
Numeral Adjective are of two kinds: (a) Definite, and (b) Indefinite.
- Definite Numeral Adjective show an exact number: one, two three, etc.(called cardinals) first, second, third etc. ( called ordinals)
The cardinals show how many things are referred to and the ordinals show their order in the series.
Note: These Adjective can be used only with Countable Nouns.
- Indefinite Numeral Adjective do not indicate an exact number: many, few, all, some, any, several, etc. e.g,
- Many men at are poor.
- Few men are rich.
- All men are mortal.
Note: Some of these can be used as Adjective of Quantity when used with Uncountable Nouns; as some sugar, all the rice, any oil, enough bread.
- Demonstrative Adjective point out which or what persons or thing is meant or point out. (The word Demonstrative means ‘pointing out’), as this, that, these, those, a, an, the, such, same, some, other etc. e.g.,
- This house is bigger that that.
- These mangoes are sweet.
- Those pictures are beautiful.
- Such question should not be asked.
- She said the same things to two or three boys.
- Distributive Adjective show that the persons or things are taken separately or in separate lots ; as each, every, either, neither, etc. e.g.,
- Each man has to carry his identity card.
- Each group is to follow its leader.
- Every servant was given a uniform.
- Every nation must work for worldpeace.
- Interrogative Adjective ask question and thus restrict the nouns before which they are used; as what, which, whose.
- What sort of man is he?
- Which road should we take?
- Whose house is that?
- Exclamatory Adjective are used in an exclamatory sense. e.g., What fine books mac has bought!, What a piece of work is man!
- Possessive Adjective indicate possession. The words my,our, your, his, her, its and their when used before a noun to qualify it, are called Possessive Adjective; as my pen, your book, our house, her husband, his wife, their leader.
- Emphasising Adjective. The word own may be used to emphasise possessive adjective. e.g.,
- I saw the murder with my own eyes.
- He is his own master.
- She is her own cook.