Look at the words in italics in the following sentences:
- I want bread and butter.
- I punished him but he did not weep.
- She ran so fast that she got tired.
- Mason and Jacob are two brothers.
In sentence 1, the word ‘and’ joins together the words ‘bread’ and ‘butter’.
In sentence 2, the word ‘but’ joins two short sentences.
In sentence 3, the word ‘that’ joins two short sentences.
In sentence 4, the word ‘and’ joins together the nouns William and Jacob.
The words and, but, that in the above sentences are, therefore, joining words. They are called Conjunctions.
A Conjunction is a word which connects words, phrases, clauses or sentences and at the same time brings about relationships between the elements thus joined.
List of Conjunctions are:
And, but, unless, lest, therefore, otherwise, when, while, however, since, because, though, yet, neither, nor, either, or, whether, till, as, if.
Examples of their uses:
- Words connected by conjunctions:
Ram and shyam went out for a walk.
- Phrases connected by conjunction:
Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people.
- Clauses connected by conjunctions:
As I was ill, I didn’t go to school.
- Sentences connected by conjunctions:
Sophia had no hope of winning the prize, nevertheless she tried her best.
Types of Conjunctions
Conjunction are divided into two classes:
- Co-ordinate conjunctions
- Sub-ordinate conjunctions
a) Co-ordinate conjunctions are those which join words, phrases or co-ordinate clauses, i.e., clauses having equal status. These are: Otherwise, nor, or, for, but, else, and, etc.
- He is old but he runs fast.
- Two and two make four.
b). Sub-ordinate conjunctions are those which join a sub-ordinate or Dependent Clauses and a Principal Clause. These are: Because, as, since, than, though, if, that, etc.
- Hardly had he reached the school when the peon rang the bell.
- She knew that she would win the prize.
- I shall not attend his marriage unless he invites me.
Correct Use of Daily use Conjunctions
Some conjunctions are used in pairs: Either…….or, Neither…… nor; Both….. and; Not only…. But also.
When such conjunctions are used, care should be taken to see that they are following by the same part of speech:
- Either you or your brother has broken the window.
- I take neither tea nor coffee.
- Both Kamla and Bimla have gone to play.
- He spoke not only loudly but clearly also.
If there are two subjects, the verb must agree with the second subject:
- Either you or your brother has stolen my purse.
- Either come in or come out: don’t stand there in the door way.
- Neither you nor your brother has come prepared.
- Neither he nor I am taking the examination.
- She is neither beautiful nor intelligent.
- He gave me neither milk nor fruit.
- He is both a poet and philosopher.
- Mark is both intelligent and diligent.
- We both love and respect Dinesh Gandhi.
Not only…. But also:
- Hardly was not only a poet but also a novelist.
- Not only Suresh but his friends also were present in the meeting.
- Not only does he give me money but he helps me in my work also.
- He would rather die than beg.
- I would rather starve than steal.
1. Unless you have no objection, I will see you tomorrow.
Correct : If you have no objection, I will see you tomorrow.
2. We cannot say if he will pass.
Correct: We cannot say that he will pass.
3. I doubt that he will pass.
Correct: I doubt whether he will pass.
4. Wait here until I do not come.
Correct: Wait here until I come.
5. Hardly I had entered the house than my dog came to me
Correct: Hardly had I entered the house when my dog came to me
6. Though he is poor but he is generous.
Correct: Though he is poor yet he is generous.
7. I not only lost my ticket but also my purse.
Correct : I lost not only my ticket but also my purse.
8. He has no other business except shoe-making.
Correct: He has no other business then shoe-making.
9. Neither Sudha is here nor is here brother.
Correct: Neither Sudha nor here brother is here.
10. He must either go or I.
Correct: Either he or I must go.
11. He not only played hockey but also football.
Correct: He played not only hockey but also football.
12. He both snatched my book and pen.
Correct: He snatched both my book and pen.
13. Because He is generous; therefore, every body loves him.
Correct: Everybody loves him because he is generous.
14. I doubt that you will pass this year.
Correct: I doubt if you will pass this year.
15. He works hard because he may stand first in the class.
Correct: He works hard so that he may stand first in the class.